Probiotic – Streptococcus Faecium Study

A double-blind, controlled trial of bioflorin (Streptococcus faecium SF68) in adults with acute diarrhea due to Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
Gastroenterology. 1990 Oct;99(4):1149-52.
Mitra AK, Rabbani GH.
International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The therapeutic efficacy of Bioflorin (Streptococcus faecium SF68; Gipharmex, Milan, Italy) in acute watery diarrhea was evaluated in 183 Bangladeshi adults. Vibrio cholerae organisms were isolated from stool cultures in 114 patients, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli organisms were isolated in 41. In addition to IV rehydration, patients were randomly assigned to receive either capsules of Bioflorin containing 1 X 10(9) of live SF68 or capsules of placebo containing killed SF68 once every 8 hours for 3 days.

No other drugs were allowed during this period. Bioflorin was well tolerated. It is concluded that Bioflorin has no demonstrable antidiarrheal property in adults with acute diarrhea due to V. cholerae or enterotoxigenic E. coli infection.

The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health.

J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2S Suppl):396S-402S. Rolfe RD.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock 79430, USA.

The use of probiotics to enhance intestinal health has been proposed for many years. Probiotics are traditionally defined as viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions when they are ingested. There is a relatively large volume of literature that supports the use of probiotics to prevent or treat intestinal disorders. However, the scientific basis of probiotic use has been firmly established only recently, and sound clinical studies have begun to be published.

Currently, the best-studied probiotics are the lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. However, other organisms used as probiotics in humans include Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Bacteroides sp., Bacillus sp., Propionibacterium sp. and various fungi.

Some probiotic preparations contain mixtures of more than one bacterial strain. Probiotics have been examined for their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of a diverse spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea (including Clostridium difficile-associated intestinal disease), infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea (including diarrhea caused by rotavirus, Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency disorder, enteral feeding diarrhea, Helicobacter pylori gastroenteritis, sucrase maltase deficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance.

Probiotics have been found to inhibit intestinal bacterial enzymes involved in the synthesis of colonic carcinogens. There are many mechanisms by which probiotics enhance intestinal health, including stimulation of immunity, competition for limited nutrients, inhibition of epithelial and mucosal adherence, inhibition of epithelial invasion and production of antimicrobial substances. Probiotics represent an exciting prophylactic and therapeutic advance, although additional investigations must be undertaken before their role in intestinal health can be delineated clearly.

Adaptation of Bacteria to the Intestinal Niche:
Probiotics & Gut Disorder.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001 May;7(2):136-45. Dunne C.
Department of Microbiology and National Food Biotechnology Centre, National University of Ireland, Cork.

The gastrointestinal tract is a complex ecosystem host to a diverse and highly evolved microbial community composed of hundreds of different microbial species. The interactions that occur between this complex microbial community and the human host have become the focus of scientific research due to increases in the incidence of illnesses associated with deficient or compromised microflora (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, constipation, food allergies, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers).

Effective multidisciplinary research programs now complement conventional microbiology with molecular ecology techniques to provide culture-independent analysis of the gastrointestinal ecosystem.

Furthermore, as we acquire an understanding of gut microflora composition and processes such as intestinal adherence, colonization, translocation, and immunomodulation, we are also elucidating mechanisms by which these can be influenced. This knowledge not only allows scientists to define the activities and interactions of “functional food”-borne beneficial bacteria in the gut, but will also provide the scientific basis for the development of innovative biotechnology-based products tailored to prevent specific diseases and promote overall human gastrointestinal health.

Probiotics Enhance Anti-infective Defences in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003 Oct;17(5):755-73. Gill HS.
Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Several clinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic and/or prophylactic efficacy of specific probiotics against acute viral gastroenteritis and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (including Clostridium difficile infection). Emerging evidence also suggests beneficial effects against Helicobacter pylori infection.

The evidence of efficacy against traveller’s diarrhoea remains, however, inconclusive. The precise mechanisms by which probiotics potentiate host gastrointestinal defences and mediate protection are not fully known. There is evidence to suggest, however, that probiotics might contribute to host defence by reinforcing non-immunological defences and stimulating both specific and non-specific host immune responses.

Little is known about the relative importance of the probiotic-stimulated mechanisms in host protection. This review summarises the evidence for the anti-infective effects of probiotics and discusses the effect of orally delivered probiotics on non-immunological and immunological defence mechanisms in the host, especially in the gastrointestinal tract.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Clinical Practice.

Nutr Clin Care. 2004 Jul-Sep;7(3):104-13. Broussard EK, Surawicz CM.
Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA.

Probiotics are living organisms that have a beneficial therapeutic effect on the host when ingested. The bacteria Lactobacillus GG and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii have been shown in controlled trials to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Prebiotics are non-living, indigestible polysaccharides metabolized in the intestine that induce physical and bacteriologic musocal modifications. Rather than introducing exogenous bacteria into the intestinal millieu, prebiotics stimulate certain indigenous bacteria already resident in the gut.

Lactobacillus GG Research and More

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